Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy occurs when the nerves lying outside of the brain and spinal cord (peripheral nerves) get injured. This illness frequently produces weakness, numbness, and discomfort, particularly in the hands and feet. It can also have an impact on other biological processes, such as digestion and urine.
The peripheral nervous system transmits information from the brain and spinal cord, commonly known as the central nervous system, to the rest of the body via motor nerves. Sensory nerves connect the peripheral nerves to the central nervous system.

Traumatic injuries, infections, metabolic issues, hereditary factors, and toxic exposure can all produce peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes is a leading cause of neuropathy.
Peripheral neuropathy refers to nerve injury induced by a variety of disorders. Peripheral neuropathy can result from the following health conditions:
  • Autoimmune disorders. These include lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and vasculitis. Polyneuropathy can also be caused by certain malignancies that affect the immune system. This is a type of autoimmune illness known as paraneoplastic syndrome.
  • Diabetes and Metabolic syndrome. This is the most typical cause. More than half of diabetics get neuropathy.
  • Infections. These include viral or bacterial illnesses like Lyme disease, shingles, hepatitis B and C, leprosy, diphtheria, and HIV.
  • Disorders that can be inherited. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a kind of genetic neuropathy that runs in families.
  • Tumors. Cancerous growths, also known as malignant, and noncancerous growths, also known as benign, can form on or press against nerves.
  • Bone marrow diseases. These include monoclonal gammopathies, a type of myeloma that affects the bones, lymphoma, and the rare disease amyloidosis.
  • Other illnesses. These include metabolic diseases like kidney or liver illness, as well as hypothyroidism, which is an underactive thyroid.
In some cases, no cause can be identified. This is called idiopathic peripheral neuropathy.
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