It is a clinically defined syndrome characterized by acute focal neurological deficits caused by central nervous system vascular damage (ischemia, hemorrhage). Stroke is the second most common cause of death and disability worldwide. Stroke is not a single disease; it can be caused by a variety of risk factors, pathological processes, and mechanisms.
Ischemic stroke occurs when the blood supply to a portion of the brain is disrupted or reduced, resulting in a lack of oxygen and nutrients to brain tissue. Brain cells start to die within minutes.

Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a weakened blood vessel ruptures. It accounts for approximately 13% of all stroke cases.

Stroke is an emergency, and prompt treatment is critical. Early intervention can minimize brain damage and other complications.
Stroke has two basic causes: an artery blockage (ischemic stroke) or a blood vessel rupture (hemorrhagic stroke). Some patients may only experience a brief disruption in blood supply to the brain, known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA), which does not result in long-lasting symptoms.

Ischemic stroke

This is the most prevalent form of stroke. It happens when the blood arteries in the brain narrow or block, resulting in an abrupt decrease in blood flow (ischemia). Blood vessel blockage or narrowing is typically caused by atherosclerotic plaques that develop in the blood vessels, or by blood clots (thrombi) that travel through the bloodstream, most commonly from the heart, and "settle" in the blood arteries of the brain.

Hemorrhagic stroke

A hemorrhagic stroke happens when a blood vessel in the brain becomes damaged or ruptured. Brain hemorrhages can be caused by a variety of blood vessel illnesses. Factors related to hemorrhagic stroke include:
  • Uncontrolled high blood pressure.
  • Overtreatment with blood thinners (anticoagulants)
  • aneurysms are protrusions in the weak spots of the blood artery walls.
  • Trauma (e.g., vehicle accident)
  • Protein deposition in blood vessel walls causes vessel wall weakness (cerebral amyloid angiopathy).
  • Ischemic stroke causes bleeding.
  • A rupture of an irregular tangle of thin-walled blood arteries (arteriovenous malformation) is a less common cause of cerebral bleeding.
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